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  • 当前位置: 小草范文网 > 论文范文 > 经济论文 > 正文

    雅思经济论文

    时间:2017-04-18来源:小草范文网 本文已影响

    篇一:雅思大作文范文30篇

    ? 经济上,发展中国家的劳动力被剥削,资源被取用,而产品却不能够进人发达国家,国内产业受到外商和外企的冲击; ?社会上,外国的产品流人一个国家,会改变人们的生活习惯和购买习惯;年轻人比较喜欢外同产品,比如说食品、衣服、电子产品和娱乐方式;

    ? 文化上,本土文化会被削弱,本土语言会受到威胁,文化多样性会逐步损失;

    ? 环境上,工业化生产和交通量的加大会增加温室气体的排放;游人的增多会对自然环境构成威胁。

    Topic 1: Increasing travels between countries enable people to learn different cultures or to increase tension between people from different countries?

    外来人口的增加有利于文化的交流:

    ? 游客或者移民都具备经济利益和价值(commercial interest and economic value); 而外同人的停留时间是和东道国的合作密切相关的(The length of stay depends on the cooperation of the host society.);很多当地人因此表现得非常好客和友好,这有助于文化的交流(Many local people are very friendly and hospitable, which promote the cultural communications.);

    ? 对其他的文化和人民更为了解(a better understanding of other cultures and other peoples),改变人们对其他民族和文化的态度(alter one's attitudes towards another people or culture);人们因此可以接受不同的文化和价值观(embrace different values and cultures),可以和平共处(create motivation to coexist peacefully), 并促进对"多元文化的理解 (promote multi-cultural understanding);

    ? 促进文化的融合(promote integration),消除文化障碍(remove cultural barriers), 外来人口的增加导致冲突: ? 违反当地的习俗会激怒当地人(breach of local customs can irritate the locals);

    ? 不同文化的人看待同一事物总有不同的角度(harbour different perceptions),并给予不同的解释(different interpretations),比如对手势、衣服、言行举止有不同的理解;举止不当会引起当地人意想不到的反应(provoke unanticipated responses); ?外国游客增多会对当地环境造成压力,甚至破坏环境,而移民增多可能导致工作机会减少,致使竞争更加激烈,这些都有可能引起当地人的反感(cause resentment in local communities).

    Globalization is a catch-all term that refers to any activity that involves more than one country, for example, travel from one country to another. The dramatic increase in transnational travel in recent years has sparked controversy over the potential impacts of this trend on individual countriesf especially those new member states of globalization. Some people are concerned that the upsurge in new arrivals will prompt local hostility against visitors instead of promoting their understanding on mutual cultural background. This notion should be rejected as one can see many facts in favor of this development between countries.

    The first reason why international travels would never bring conflict is rooted in the fact that both visitors and locals are economically motivated. International travel opens up opportunities for business development throughout the world. Entrepreneurs are interested not only in the domestic market but also in the oversea market. Foreigners should learn the culture of a country before winning over the local people. In turn, locals should show their hospitality to visitors in exchange for their trust. They share a view that acceptance of each other's cultural background is a necessary condition for cooperation.

    Understanding a culture has other implications. Differences in social background, cultural values and religious belief might make the discrepancy of foreigners and local inhabitants on some issues indelible; however, the higher interaction, the higher level of communication and understanding. Arabians, for example, used to consider westerners as their foes. Now they have concrete relations with their western allies in many fields. In the initial stage, their divergence seemed

    inherent but over time, with better mutual understanding, they take the same position on many issues.

    Undeniably, it is likely that in some resorts, foreign visitors repel the local community with their scant regard for the local environment and conventions when they first arrive. However, it should be noted that most offense is accidental, rather than intentional. Instead, visitors disobey rules and conventions simply because they have no knowledge of them. This situation is expected to be improved with the passing of time when visitors from different countries increase their knowledge of a local culture.

    According to the above analysis, we can observe that the increase in the international travel should not be taken as the cause of any conflict that arises between two countries. Alternatively, one should recognize its role in improving mutual understanding between two countries.

    1. catch-all = all-embracing:包罗甚广的 ;包括一切的 2. hostility=enmity=resentment:敌意,怨'恨,愤恨

    3. rooted in=derived from=based on:基于 4. entrepreneur=tycoon=mogul=industrialist:企业家,实业家

    5. discrepancy=disagreement=difference=divergence:分歧,矛盾

    6. foe=enemy=rival:敌人,竟争对手 7. concrete=tangible=solid:具体的,实际的

    8. overtime=in due course=sooner or later:最终,早

    9. resort:胜地;tourist resort:旅游胜地;holiday resort:度假胜地;beach resort:海边度假胜地; scenic spot:景观;place of interest: 旅游景点

    10. repel=revolt=repulse:使厌恶,憎恶 11. scant=limited=scarce:缺乏的,不足的

    Topic2: When international media (including movies, fashion shows, advertisements and other TV programs) convey the same messages to the global audience, people argue that the expansion of international media has negative impacts on cultural diversity. What is your opinion?

    媒体信息一致的缺点:

    ? 国际媒体(global media)—般掌握在少数几个有实力的机构手中(in the hands of a few, large, powerful organizations);有了媒体的宣传(propaganda)后,西方文化成了主流(domineering force),大规模的、有吸引力的广告(mass seductive advertising )唤起了落后地区人们对物质 新的向往(create fresh desires),经济联系增强(strong economic ties),西方产品取代了本地产 品,使人们更加向往西方的文化;

    ? 文化开始融合在一起(mingle),人们被新的价值观所围绕(bombarded with new values),对自 己的文化失去信心和自豪感(confidence and pride),拒绝接受自己的文化传统(rejection of their cultural heritage)转而接受西方的文化习惯(adoption of Western cultural practices);西方 媒体削弱了民族的特征(ethnic identity)和社会的凝聚力(social cohesion);因为担心失去观众 (a loss of viewers),当地的电视台也开始播放西方的电视节目(television shows), ? 国际媒体的普遍会降低世界文化的品质和多样性(degrade the quality and diversity of world culture);文化被商业化(commercialized), —些文化产品(cultural goods),如音乐、服装,都 变成了商品(commodities in the marketplace)。因此,即便一些文化在世界其他地方传播,它原 来的性质(authenticity)已经丧失。

    媒体信息一致的优点:

    ? 国家之间的频繁交往会促进文化之间的交流。因此,相互了解和相互认同的可能性 (likelihood of mutual understanding and mutual acceptance )就会增加,这是顺应全球化的趋势;

    ? 未必一定放弃传统观念(not necessarily lead to the abolition of traditional values),事实上媒体 可以起到宣传和稳固传统文化的作用;

    ? 主流媒体一般都会反应文化多元性(The dominant media reflect cultural diversity.); —些外国 节目其实促进了文化多元性(Most foreign programming is promoting cultural diversity.),适应 了当地的条件(adapt to local conditions),注意到了当地文化的敏感性(aware of cultural sensitivity).自我调节来适应市场(exercise self-censorship to suit the

    market :)。

    As international media companies expand across the world, the growing popularity and uniformity of some media programs (such as TV shows, movies, fashion shows) is causing worldwide concern. Many people have strong views toward this trend. In my opinion, international media is closely linked to cultural globalization and cultural homogeneity.

    The dominance of international media is a sign of Western cultural imperialism and has the potential to thwart cultural diversity. It is not a secret that international media is owned and operated by a handful of giant corporations, such as Time Warner. They control large sectors of the media market and place national media companies at risk. The contraction in the number of media owners will cause a proportional reduction, in the variety of programs broadcasted. For example, painting, music and movies accessible in the media have a small number of gees, imposing restraints on one's knowledge of artworks of different cultural backgrounds.

    In addition to seizing control over those creative industries, global entertainment companies affect cultural diversity by reshaping the perceptions, beliefs and norms of ordinary citizens in different countries. Most of the cultural values and ideals promoted by the leading mainstream media are of American origin. American culture values individuality, maximization of one's benefits and material wealth, rather than communal life and family solidarity, the values and norms previously treasured in" many Asian countries. Unfortunately, many Asian people now imitate American people, causing the alteration of their perceptions of family. This radical change can be attributed to those movies and TV programs that portray the success of American individuals or corporations.

    The loss of media diversity is also responsible for people's narrow sense of ways of life. The ruling class of many countries speaks English, favors Western food, wears Western-style jackets and even prefers Western weddings. Young people are captivated by American basketball and some even daubing the names of NBA stars on their school sweatsuits. All these transformations in life are the result of the audience's exposure to Hollywood movies, TV shows and sports reports. The loss of media diversity will lead to degradation of culture and to a minimization of cultural diversity. It is a worrying trend, as people need cultural diversity to preserve and pass on their valuable heritage to future generations, including lifestyle.

    As shown above, international media, controlled by a handful of transnational media corporations, is exporting Western culture worldwide and putting many indigenous cultures at the risk of extinction. The uniformity of media programs has led to that of artworks, norms and ways of life wherever international media goes.

    1. dominance=domination=power:统治,力量2. sign=symbol=mark=signal=indication:标志,象征

    3. thwart=prevent=spoil=ruin:阻止,破坏

    4. a handful of=a small number of:少数的 5. contraction-reduction :减少

    6. proportional=relative:相对的,成比例的7. perception=view=opinion:看法

    8. ideal=value=belief=principle:观点,观念;标准 9. solidarity=unity=harmony=cohesion:团结

    10. be captivated by=be obsessed with=be passionate about=be addicted to=be keen on=be enthusiastic about:被…所吸引

    11. pass on=give=impart=convey:传递,灌输

    Topic 3: There is a disagreement on the impact of increased business and culture contact between countries on a country's identity. What is your opinion?

    商业和文化的接触增多会导致一个国家特征的丧失:

    ? 影响文化:文化不是静态的,而是动态的(not static, but dynamic);—种文化的改变主要是由 于社会环境(social environment)发生了变化。比如说,人们的饮食习惯发生了改变,这是学习 夕卜界文化的结果(People's eating habits have been changed as the result of learned behaviour.); 快餐文化源自美国,有些人将此作为财富的象征(symbols of wealth),从而喜欢快餐;另外, 本地的饮食文化会改变,以适应外国人的口味(suit the tastes of visitors);

    ? 影响生活方式:进口商品的增多,对外国产品的喜好(preference for imports);人们更加熟悉 他国的文化,而忘记自身的特点(sense of identity),社会的团结也有所损害(an erosion of social solidarity);服装、饮食、娱乐等等都被两化了 (westernized),比如说,西装现在是流行 的男性服装(the suit is the most popular outfit for men); ? 欠发达国家在技术革新中起到的作用甚微(play a small role in the technological revolution),所 以需要"出卖"自己国家的主权或者利益来获得国际的帮助(concede sovereignty and interests to other countries for aid);贫富差距加大(widening gap between the richest and poorest parts of the world);

    ? 接受西方文化的人们成为一个国家新的统治阶级(new ruling class);人们摒弃传统的观念 (renounce traditionally-held beliefs),觉得传统观念是过时的和低人一等的(outdated and inferior);主流文化会取代老式的和各种各样的文化(A dominant culture takes over diverse cultures.),人们不再尊重传统文化(lose respect older cultures),而传统观念最终成为历史 {consigned to history)。

    商业和文化的接触增多会加强一个国家的特征:

    ? 外来文化让人们意识到自己文化的特点,从而更加注意维持这种文化; ? 一种特殊文化会引起世界的关注,人们会更加注意保护。

    One of the most conspicuous trends in the 21st century is a closer connection between countries, in both economic and cultural aspects. There is a widespread worry that this will lead to the gradual demise of countries’ identities. This issue should be viewed and analyzed from multiple perspectives.

    When a country tends to develop a closer relationship with the rest of the world, it does not necessarily give up its culture. Culture is not a disgrace to but an asset of a country. An indigenous culture can distinguish one country from others, attracting foreign visitors and yielding high income. As most tourists travel abroad for learning different cultures and sampling different ways of life, such as Beijing opera in China, Japanese tea culture and Thai temples, many countries have responded with protecting and preserving their cultural identities, in an effort to keep themselves in the list of the most popular destinations. Increased tourism instills fresh life force into these countries, aiding the conservation of their features.

    While tourism provides a driving force for cultural conversation, some components of a culture, such as traditions^ customs or taboos might die out over time. It seems that in some countries, the locals have become more accustomed to exotic cultures. It reflects the combined effects of the invasion of foreign cultures, either through media or through direct business interaction. For example, two decades ago, sex was a taboo subject in China and most Chinese people felt embarrassed to talk openly about it. Over time the Western culture has permeated into the Chinese lifestyle, and the Chinese people have broken many of their time-honoured traditions. It occurs in the rest of the world as well.

    As outlined above, increased interaction between countries in the domains of business and culture can either strengthen or undermine the identities of countries involved, To date there is no definite answer to this question.

    1. conspicuous-noticeable=prominent=striking:显箸的,突出的

    2. connection=linkage= relation=relationship:关系,联系 3. demise=disappearance=vanishing=fading:消失,死亡

    4. multiple=manifold=numerous=various=many:不同的,很多的 5. disgrace=dishonour=shame=humiliation:耻辱

    6. life force=soul=essence:生命力7. conservation=protection=preservation:保存,保护

    8. exotic=bizarre=outlandish=from afar=mysteriously unusual: 外来的,奇异的

    9. taboo=offensive=embarrassing=unacceptable=disgraceful=dishonourable=humiliating:无礼的,侮辱性的;忌讳的

    10. permeate=seep into=pervade=leak into:渗透11. time-honoured=age-old=long-established :历史悠久的

    12. interaction=interplay=communication=relationship:相互作用

    Topic 4: Some people believe that culture will be ruined if it is used to earn tourism revenue, but others consider that tourism is the only way of protecting a culture. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

    旅游业有益文化保护(cultural preservation)的论点:

    ? 除了自然景观(landscape)之外,文化和历史是吸引旅游者去一个国家或者一个旅游景点 (tourism site)观光的最主要原因(motivator);旅游业和文化遗产相结合(integrate tourism and cultural heritage)为文化保护提供了经济支持(economic incentives);

    ? 在文化领域提供一些旅游选择(introduce the tourism options available with the cultural sectors), 如博物馆、历史景点、活动禾卩奠食等(including museums, historical sites, events and cuisine), 游客会深人了解当地传统和习俗(get an insight into local customs and traditions),感受当地传 统和艺术(experience local traditions, arts and heritage),从而更加尊重当地社区和周围的环境 (respect the host community and its environment),促进不同国家之间关于自然和文化资源保护的交流与对话(the dialogue over conservation of natural and cultural resources )0 一

    旅游业导致文化破坏cultural destruction )的观点:

    ? 保护的一般是食物、时尚、节日等(preserve food, fashion, festivals and so forth)—些文化的表 面一,征(superficial elements of a culture), ;|各文化定格成表演者(freeze culture as performers), 导致了文化、宗教、传统仪式、物质文化和语言的损失(the loss of culture, religion, rituals, material culture and language);将文化商业化(commercialise the culture),破坏了文化神圣和 独特的本质(erode the sacred and unique nature);虽然很多活动是娱乐活动(entertain, rather than educate tourists),但有些是对当地人的一种羞辱(humiliate the local people);

    ? 垃圾、涂鸦、破坏和噪音不断增加(increasing litter, graffiti, vandalism and noise),游客在没有 被允许的情况下进人建筑物、神殿、神圣的土地(enter buildings, shrines or sacred lands without permission).这都与当地文化相冲突,是一种文化侮辱(an insult to the local culture )

    There is little room for doubt that tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world. However, its impact on culture remains a source of constant debate. This essay will elaborate on both positive and negative effects of tourism from a cultural perspective.

    Providing economic incentives for cultural preservation is unarguably one of the main contributions of tourism. To many tourists, culture and history are what they first consider when choosing a destination. Their mindset has been recognised by many tourism sites and money has been subsequently directed toward cultural protection, including the maintenance of key historical sites. Tourism is therefore one of the primary forces contributing to the preservation of a culture.

    In addition to raising financing, tourism can make an indigenous culture known to the world and rally support worldwide to protect it. When a historic site or a site that shows a country's cultural heritage is made accessible to the public, visitors from all over the world will soon flock there. They will share their experience in the local culture with their friends and families once they return home, assisting this site to gain international fame. Both financial and technological support will flood in for the conservation of natural and cultural resources.

    篇二:五种雅思大作文话题的常见论点分析(一)

    智课网IELTS备考资料

    五种雅思大作文话题的常见论点分析(一)

    考生们都知

    雅思经济论文

    道 雅思 考官在评判一篇大作文时,除了看文章的结构和语言之外,还很重视这篇文章的主体内容。而中国考生在写essay时常见的一个问题恰恰是考前准备了语言,临场读懂了题目,很快形成了观点,但是却不知该从哪些角度来支持自己的thesis statement。所以主体段落观点单调,思维陈旧,内容空洞,为达到字数而把一个观点写了再写等问题常常会充斥在文章的body part。这极大地影响了考生的作文成绩。在此,笔者将多年积累的雅思大作文常见论点总结为一首打油诗,以飨读者。

    论文观点角度多;

    科技经济常切磋;

    肉体灵魂不放过;

    权利平等要把握;

    个人国家多权衡;

    文化道德思路扩;

    结合话题多思索;

    主体论证不难说。

    一、科技和经济

    在雅思论文主体部分写作中,科技角度是使用频率最高的角度。绝大多数作文的话题都可以从科技发展对人的生活带来的影响这个角度来加以分析。例如:

    讨论是否将动物用于科学实验:

    Some scientists claim that experiments carried out on animals would be crucial for potential breakthroughs in treating some of the most-feared incurable diseases.

    讨论社会道德下滑:

    Development of science and technology has given birth to materialism and capitalism which favor the research for economic growth and freedom of men. Consequently, no spiritual, moral, and traditional values are taken into account.

    压力大的原因:

    The rapid development of science and technology makes work today more demanding than it used to be.

    亲情淡漠的原因:

    The availability of a great variety of high-tech recreational facilities also diverts people from enjoying chats with the members of their families.

    环保全球化的原因:

    Developing countries lack sufficient numbers of qualified scientists and other skilled personnel to cope with the increasingly serious environmental problems, such as the ozone depletion, the marine pollution and the like.

    如果说科技的发展是人类社会进步的助推器,那么经济的影响就是社会前进的方向标。经济的强弱通常会导致某一现象的出现或某种结果的产生。比如在讨论什么是最伟大的发明时,考生可能想到电话。那么怎样来支持这一观点呢?试看下面的句子:

    The development of the telephone created a new market for the employment of women. The position of telephone operators was most often filled by women, creating a new world of opportunities for females to struggle for the equal rights to males.

    通过说明电话的发明使女性获得工作更多的工作机会,从而在经济是更加独力,这对于她们争取平等的权利起到了巨大的推动作用。

    篇三:雅思写作中英议论文比较

    写作:这十个问题,在雅思作文里搞清楚,在国外,不管写硕士论文,小论文,学术类文章必须按这种思路写,否则,你的论文成绩不会拿到高分。

    一、 情感分段和逻辑分段?

    中文:情感分段; 英文:逻辑分段

    同学写中文议论文,想到哪里写到哪里,一句话,两句话成一个自然段,英美人不可接受。有个杂文作家,写小品文的,马铁丁先生,《骄必败》,所谓杂文,小品文,即英文的essay。 第一段“这个也不行,那个也不行”,第二段。。。每一段,一句话,两句话,四句话,都可以成一段。9段,情感上来了,一段写两句话,四个段落表达一个中心思想,就是,骄傲的人把缺点也是说成最好的。如果老外写,四段并成一段,然后前面加一句罩上这一段,也就是骄傲的人把缺点也认为是最好的,然后这个也不行,那个也不行。我们的分段是情感式分段,英文,首先把观点亮出来,逻辑分段。 请记住:你写作文一定要去适应对方,而不是让对方适应你。你写作文,对考官来说是阅读理解,这十个问题搞明白,你阅读文章至关重要,对你写作也一样。

    骄必败

    马铁丁

    一个人总有他的长处和短处,缺点和优点;如果只看到自己的长处和优点,看不到自己的短处和缺点,“各以所长,相轻所短”,那末,任何人要骄傲,总能找到可以骄傲的地方。

    有资历的人,以他的资历为骄傲;有文化的人,以他的文化为骄傲;有实际工作经验的人,又以他的经验为骄傲。同一个人他可以对这个人表现这种骄傲,而对那个人又表现那种骄傲。比如说资历吧。骄傲的人会对资历比他浅的人说:“当我吃小米、背背包、打游击的时候,你还小得很呢!”相反,他又会对资历比他深的人说:“你看,参加工作这么些时候,还是那么不顶事。”言外之意很明白的:顶事的自然只有他自己。

    这个也不行,那个也不行,只有自己最行,是一切骄傲的人共同的特点。

    既然自己最行,那么,优点固然是优点,至于缺点,据说也是可“爱”的。

    笔者曾经遇到过这么一件事,有一位骄傲的人,严重地脱离群众。脱离群众总该不是什么优点吧?然而不然,当别人批评到他脱离群众时,他居然用这样的话来反驳:

    “只有羊呀、猪呀才是成群结队,狮子老虎总是独来独往的。”请看,何等狂妄!把自己比成狮子、老虎,把别人比成猪羊。其实狮子老虎固然有时是独来独往,刺猬、癞蛤蟆、蜘蛛又何尝不是独来独往。从这里可以看出骄傲的人思想上的片面性,一心情愿把自己向“好”的方面比。他们对自己的缺点或者看不到,或者虽然看到,却对它的危害估计不足,或者索性把缺点加以装饰、美化,仿佛是什么可“爱”的“宝贝”。

    骄傲的人既然只看到自的长处和优点,也就必然夸大个人的主观力量,认为只要他一出现,什么问题都会迎刃而解。这样,他就会自己蒙蔽自己的眼睛,看不到工作中的缺点和错误,看不到已经发生或可能发生的困难,当然,也就不会动员大家来改正缺点并认真克服困难或预作防范。无数经验证明:看不到缺点,看不到困难,因而疏忽大意,一百件工作,九十九件没有不失败的。

    所以说:骄必败。

    初级中学课本《语文》第五册10课,人民教育出版社1987年11月第2版

    二、 文章中心思想句是读者体会还是作者交代?

    中文:读者体会; 英文:作者交待

    刚才,骄必败,九个自然段。中国人讲究含蓄,不喜欢赤裸裸的,我们喜欢玩深沉,不喜欢直来直去,我们写文章说了一大堆,你去体会吧,字里行间,你读完后闭上眼睛体会吧。判卷考官本来就不喜欢,你还要去折磨他,你读完后闭上眼睛体会吧。不

    喜欢直说。英文,第一段直接交代,噹,让你心里踏实,我就讲这个,你看我是不是讲这个。就这么直接。

    三、 引言段是开门见山还是层层拨开?

    英文:开门见山; 中文:层层拨开(剥笋),一层一层的

    中文,写开头喜欢遥远的走过来,在。。。路线指引下,在。。。领导关怀下,在。。。大家共同的帮助下,然后呢,具体的我,在桌子底下。大家最关心的我,最后我被压在桌子底下。举个例子,以后你再也不好意思写这样的段落。比如:《英语对科学家为什么这么重要》用英语写的文章,我把它翻成中文,这样信息量大一点。“我们生活在这么一个世界,科学技术发展很快,科学的发展需要全世界各个地方的科学家交流思想,然而科学家来自不同的国家,说的是不同的语言,他们没有一种共同的语言让大家都明白,另外一方面我们想知道,他们在干嘛,他们的经验知识,这样有便于改进我们的工作,所以我们必须掌握一种外语,然而这个世界上,外语太多,我们不可能掌握所有的外语,而幸运的是,有一种语言全世界都在通用,那就是英语,世界上的大部分科学家都能够说,读,写英语,大部分的学术刊物都是用英语出版的,所有的国际会议都使用英语,如果我们掌握英语,我们就可以走遍全世界任何一个角落和这个全世界任何人进行交流,沟通,就掌握了科学研究的最有利的武器之一”。第一段写完了。读完以后,我气就接不上来了。说了一大推,到了最后,让你明白,英语是如何的重要。写议论文,尤其考场上议论文,第一段不可以写这么多,刚才的如翻译成英文,已经有两百词了。有同学第一自然段写,怎么也写不到第二段,第一段写了一百多字。整个文章写150-200字,第一段写了80-100字,下面就是畸形的了。第一段二句三句话,一句话10个词,五句话就写了60个字了,第一段写了两百字,全篇六七百字,要控制好。

    写议论文,尤其是在考场上写,第一段是不可以太长的

    四、 段落主题句有没有?

    英文:有主题句

    不要把主题句分散在每个段落的不同处。现实生活中,也可以放在一段第一句,最后一句。考试中千万不要,你想展示一下,我的写作手段多么好,主题句可以放在任何位置,考官就被惹翻了pissed off,你在折磨他,让他每个段落里去找主题句。考试中,主题句要写在中间每一段的第一句话,丁,主题句出来,不要隐藏起来。

    五、 现行段落或螺旋式段落?

    英语:线性;中文:螺旋式

    一个美国的汉学家,说西方人的思路,尤其逻辑思辨,论证,第一步,Say what you are going to say; 这是你脑子里琢磨,看不到的,第二步say it,说出来,你看得到的; 第三步,say why you have just said it. 所以你能看到的卷面上的就是,说出来,告诉你为什么这么说?而不是,说了半天,我告诉你我为什么这么说。中国人喜欢说半天,把你侃晕,所以,我这样说。这个美国汉学家,套用中国人的成语:“画龙点睛”,兜圈子,兜圈子,兜圈子,最后,That is my point.这就是我要说的。说直接一点,中国人要适应英语议论文逻辑思辨模式,其实很简单,我们中国人,原来,smart,现在变得some what stupid! 不就是一根筋吗,扯直就完了。实际上很简单。

    六、 人证与法证?

    中文:人证;英文:法证

    中文写议论文,更多用人证,我们喜欢激扬文字,我们喜欢抒发感情,还喜欢引经据典,尤其喜欢引用政治人物说,比如毛主席说,谁还敢说,小平说,我不敢再说了,我根本不敢推理的。老外看这种文章很不习惯。西方人的思维:追求真理。东方人的

    思维:捍卫真理。想都不想,因为大家都这样说了。英文议论文强调,事实材料,强调数据,强调普通老百姓,有血有肉的事实。你可能引用政治家的一句话,他更多会引用,他邻居一个中年讲的话,事件,更加powerful。强调事实,数据,普通人事件, 如果要引用大家,名家,一定是这个领域的专家。讲计算机的,就不会引用毛主席,而是引用比尔盖茨,不用政治家,

    七、 一般具体还是曲折前进?

    英文:一般具体(先把观点说出来,再用具体的东西给予支持);

    中文:曲折前进。曲折起伏

    八、 段内连贯:过渡词语/词意重复?

    中文:词意重复

    英语是形合语言,靠语言形式手段来完成相互之间的关联,句子句子之间如何连成段落,连成文章

    中文是意合语言,靠内在意义meaning,纽带来连接。

    中国学生的作文。A student acquires knowledge mainly from textbooks and in class. When he graduated from school, he can do nothing. Everything is different from what teachers told him. He may even be disappointed. He may be frustrated. He may be afraid to face the real world. Our universities have turned out our people of no use.(翻译)

    中国学生写的英文段落,中国人就是这样讲话的。(让我们感觉好点).我们没那么做作,我们如果用大量衔接手段,我们觉得不自然。我们是用无形的东西把它连接起来。大学生是从课本上学知识,。。。大家听的很明白。外国人听不明白,感觉是,散了架的一堆血和肉, 没有内在的联系, 他不自然。老外修改, 我们觉得不自然。

    A student acquires knowledge mainly from the textbooks and in class. As a result其结果是, when he graduates from school, he can do nothing. For everything (For用在句首引导并列句) is different from what his teacher told him, he may even be disappointed and frustrated.(中文里很有火力) In the end (最终,最后) , he may be afraid to face the real world. Obviously(显而易见), our universities have turned out our people of no use.

    我们觉得不自然,但是没有,他们不自然。英语靠过渡词的衔接,词汇的纽带,语法的照应

    九、 段落与段落之间的连贯:形和义?

    林语堂,写过,Our country, our people. 吾国吾民,中说,中国人写英语,有的英语很漂亮,但一看就是中国人写的,骨架子是中文的,行文习惯是中文的。你看中国日报。华盛顿邮报,新闻周刊,时代周刊,你看吗?不看,即使有,你也不好好看,没有信心,不习惯。中国日报,喜欢看,一看特清楚,特明白,读起来特别轻松,他的英文是地道的,有外国专家队伍,修改,修饰语言,polish, 英语很地道,但是报纸,有实效性,只能改语言,符合语言习惯,框架不可能推倒重来,所以这个思路我们很习惯,一目十行。如果观点甚至都是一致的文章,读华盛顿邮报很费劲。中国日报,很上瘾,很轻松,因为血肉是英语,骨架是中文。我就发誓了,我就看中国日报了,结果到国外看不明白。

    十、 结尾部分是概括还是训导?

    英文:概括。概括性的。有时主题升华一点,绝不会喊空的口号。

    中文:训导。我们应该,我们必须We must , let’s 喊口号,教训别人。

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