1. 关系代词： that（代人或物，作主语或宾语）
2. 关系副词：when, where, why
1）All that glitters is not gold.
2）Those who do not work must not eat.
3）He is the man whom we all respect.
4）Oxygen in which fires burn is a coulourless gas.
5）Edison is a great invertor whose fame is world-wide.
6）The government officials are inclined to apply the science and technology to short- term projects, which is not beneficial to scientific development.
7）That is the period when he lived here.
8）That is the place where he was born.
9）That is the reason why he sopke.
10）You can take any seat that is free.
11）John lent me a few books that are of value.
12）This is the very film that I want to see.
13）See Page 136, Paragraph 4.
1. 先行词前有限定词 all, any, every, (a) few, no, only, some, very 或序数词或形容词最高级等修饰时，其后的关系代词通常用that 。
2. 非限制性形容词从句不能用 that。
三．限制性和非限制性形容词从句 who/that knew about the floods took another road.
who knew about the floods, took another road
which/that was in the cellar was all ruined.
which was in the cellar, was all ruined.
非限制性形容词从句由除 that 以外的其他关系代词引导，并在从句前后加
四．that, which 和 whom 的省略
that / which / whom (who) 在限制性形容词从句中用作宾语时常被省略。
1) The car (which/that) I hired broke down after five kilometers.
2) The lawyer (whom/who/that) I consulted gave me some useful advice.
五．由“介词 + 关系代词”引导的形容词从句
由“介词 + 关系代词”引导的形容词从句多用于正式语体。能作这种用法的关系代词主要是：which, whom 和 whose。
1）This is the house about which we wrote to you.
2）Do you know the man to whom your brother writes?
3）This is Peter in whose house I’ve lived for five years.
4）We studied year-round temperature variations in six streams, all of which run into the River Tywi in central Wales. (Para. 5, Unit 8)
5）We study in a big room, the windows of which open to the park.
Combine the following sentences by means of“n. / pron. + prep. + which / whom”, making any necessary changes:
1）He introduced me to his students.
Most of them were from abroad.
2）Her two brothers ring her up every week.
Both of them work in Scotland.
3）In our university there are many laboratories.
The largest one of them was built last year.
4）I bought a dozen eggs.
Six of them broke when I dropped the box at my door.
5）Water is a liquid.
Its boiling point is 100°C.
6）I looked at several houses.
Most of them were quite unsuitable.
7）This matter is under investigation.
Its results will soon be published.
1）He introduced me to his students, most of whom were from abroad.
2）Her two brothers, both of whom work in Scotland, ring her up every week.
3）In our university there are many laboratories, the largest one of which was built last year.
4）I bought a dozen eggs, six of which broke when I dropped the box at my door.
5）Water is a liquid, the boi
ling point of which is 100°C.
6）I looked at several houses, most of which were quite unsuitable.
7）This matter is under investigation, the results of which will soon be published. 3
? 关系代词：who, whom, whose, that, which, as等（在句中作主、表、宾、定等成分） ? 关系副词：where(on which), when(in which), why(for which)（在句中作状语） ? 关联词：that（引导表示方式、时间的定语从句） You’ I don’定语从句引导词的选择
b. 当先行词前有the only, the very, the last等词修饰时；
c. 当先行词为anything, nothing, something, everything, all, little, much等不定代词修饰
d. 当先行词前有all, every, no, some, any, little, much, few等词修饰时；
e. It is 句型中的引导定语从句时。
? ? ? ?
7. as 从句的先行词是the same, such, 或被他们所修饰；多用于表示肯定意义的从句中，
a. 谓语动词的固定搭配 b. 先行词 e.g. I’9. That 作为关联词可以当作关系副词用
e.g. This is the house in which Louis XIII lived.
This is the house that Louis XIII lived.
This is the house where Louis XIII lived.
This is house which Louis XIII lived in.
This is the house Louis XIII lived in.
（5）关系词作宾语时不能省。 1 什么叫定语从句： 用作定语的从句叫作定语从句。
Eg 1) Tom’father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night . Eg The girl who answered the question was Mary.
汤姆的父亲, 已年过花甲， 仍然日夜努力工作着。 2位置： 置于它所修饰的名词或代词之后， 这种名词或代词叫做先行词。
（ ——who引导的非限定性定语从句, who 在非限定性定语从句中作主语） Eg 1） The man who was here yesterday is a painter.
定语从句放在the man 之后.
2） I will pardon him who is honest 我愿意宽恕他， 他是成实的。
定语从句放在 him 之后.
A.关系代词有：who whose whom which that as 等。
B.关系副词有：where when why 等。
A 关系代词在定语从句中作主语、宾语、定语等，有who,（作主语） whom,（作宾语）whose,
（作定语也可指物） 指人which, that,（作主语， 宾语） 指物
Eg 1） People who/that study the earthquakes think that there will be another big soon.
（ 指人， 限定性） 可用who /that 作主语
2） I know the man whom you mean.我认识你指的那个人。
（指人， 限定性） 关系代词whom在从句中作宾语
3）Do you know the girl whose father is an engineer? 你认识她爸爸是个工程师的小女
4） The house which/that they built in 1990 stayed up in the earthquake.
（指物， 限定性） 关系代词which/that在从句中作宾语可省略
5） A letter that/which is written in pencil is diffcult to read. 用铅笔写的信很难读
B 关系副词在定语从句中作状语，有when( 指时间) , where （指地点）, why 等。
Eg 1) He came last night when I was out. 他昨晚来时我出去了。（关系副词when
的先行词是last night 在从句中作状语，指时间 ）
2)A steel plant is a place where steel is made. 炼钢厂是炼钢的地方。
3)That is no reason why you should leave. 那不是你必须离开的原因。
（关系副词why的先行词是reason在从句中作状语，指原因） 5. 定语从句分类：定语从句可分为限定性定语从句，和非限定性定语从句两种。
2） The project, which lasted four years , cost 1 billiom. 那项工程持续了四年， 耗资十亿美元。 （——which指物，引导的非限定性定语从句， which不能换成that） 3）The engine is designed by Engineer Wang, whose son is a college student 那台发动机是王工程师设计的，他的儿子是个大学生。 （——whose引导的非限定性定语从句，作定语） C．限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句的区别： Eg 1 ) I have a brother who works in a chemical works.我有一个在化工厂工作的哥哥。(言外之意， 还有其他哥哥不在化工厂工作 ，而在别处。) I have a brother， who works in a chemical works. 我有一个哥哥，他在化工厂工作。 （暗示再没有别的哥哥了。）D .非限定性定语从句关系词的用法：非限定性定语从句的关系词基本和限定性定语从句相同，但是不能用that 引导. 三、介词+关系代词 1. 指人，介词+whom
whom之前，whom不能省）关系代词who/ that作介词with 的宾语，介词2）The people to whom you were talking are Swedes. 你与之谈话的那些人是瑞典。= The people( who/ that/ whom) you were talking to are Swedes.( who/ that/ whom)在口语中可省) 2. 指物，介词+which (which不能省) 、that (可省 但介词必须在句末)Eg 1) This is the book for which you asked . 这是你索要的数。 （关系代词 which作介词
for 的宾语, 介词for置于从句之首，即which之前，which不能省） = This is the book which you asked for . 这是你索要的数。 （关系代词which作介词for 的宾语可省， 介词for置于从句之末）2) Here is the car that I told you about.这就是我和你谈论过的那辆汽车。 （关系代词that作介词 about的宾语，介词about置于从句之末） 3. 介词+which=关系福词where/when Eg 1) Is this the house in which(=where) you once lived? 这就是你们经住过的房子
吗？先行词the house是地点，可用关系福词where= in which （这里的that.显然是为了避免重复Which） 2）I will never forget the day on which(=when) they left. 我将永进忘不了他们离开6 关系代词在限定性定语从句中作表语，关系代词用that. 的那一天。先行词the day是时间， 可用关系福词when= on which Eg 1) He is not that man that he was. 他已不是过去的他了。 （that. 作定语从句中作表 4 名词（代词，数次）+ of +which/whom 引导的定从 语） Eg 1) I have many friends, many of whon are painters. (关7 表示固有的特点，关系代词用that 系代词whom代替朋友， many of whom 朋友当中的一些) Eg 1) There is a house that has bay windows. 有一栋房子有突出的窗户。（that在此表
2）Last Sunday I bought some books from the bookstore,three of which were 示固有的特点） English novels. 上星期我从书店里买了一些书， 其中三本是英文小说。 （关系代词which代书，three of which其书中三本） 3)The population of Hong kong is about 6 milliom, 95% of whom are Chi香港人口约600万，其中95%是中国人。
和that 的区别：1当先行词是不定代词 all ,everything, little, anything, nothing, much, few等词是， 关系代词用that. Eg 1) This is all that Mr. Black could offer.这就是布兰克先生所能提供的。2）Is there anything that I can do for you? 我能为你作些什么吗？3）There is little that I can do to make up for the lost time. 我几乎不能做什么来弥补时间上的损失。4） There is still much that can be done about it. 关于这件事还有很多工作要做。 2 当先行词被 all, the only, the very, the last, any , no,the same, 等词修饰时，关系代词用that. Eg 1) All the apples that fall down are eaten by the pigs. 掉在地上的苹果都让猪吃了。 2)There are the very points that interest me. 正是这几点使我感兴趣。 3)That’s the same man that asked for help the day before yesterday. 这个与前天求援的是同一个人。 4)Corn was not the only food that was taken to Europe.玉米并不是被传往欧洲的唯一的食物。 3. 当先行词被形容词最高级或序数词所修饰时，关系代词用that.Eg 1) This is the best hotel that I know.这是我所知道的最高级的宾馆。 2） Einstein is one of the great scientist that ever lived. 爱因斯坦是有史以来最伟大的科学家之一。 3） The frist step that we are to take is very difficult. 我们要迚行的第一步很难。4 当先行词既有人也有物时，关系代词用that. Eg 1) They talked about things and persons that they remembered. 他们谈起所记得起的人和事。
2）He was watching the children and parcels that filled the car. 他望着塞满车的
Eg 1) Which was the hotel that was recommended to you? 哪一个是推荐给你的旅馆。8 在强调句子结构里，
Eg 1) It was liberation that brought about a complete change in his life.是解放给他的生
1介此之后须用which Eg 1) This is the one of which I’m speaking. 这就是我所讲的那个。 （介此之后须用
2 如果句中有两个定语从句， 其中一个用了that ， 另一个最好用which
Eg 1) Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 让我给你看看我从新开放的图书馆借来的小说吧。（ 两个定语从句，前一个用了that，后一个用which）
3 which 引导定语从句可以修饰整个句子
Eg 1) Carol said the wrok would be done by October, which personally I doubl very much. “卡洛尔说这项工作十月前能做好， 对此我个人深感怀疑。（which修饰前面整个句子）
Eg 1) Colin told me about his job, which he is enjoying very much.柯林告诉我他的新工作，
五 补充 as than but 一亦可用作关系代词 Eg 1) He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. 他是个外国人， 我是从他的口音知道
的。（关系代词as 在从句中用作宾语，其先行词是前面的整个句子。） 2）I never heard
such stories as he tells. 我从未听过他讲的这类故（关系代词as与指示代词such连用，
as 在从句中用作宾语，其先行词是such stories
3)Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. 她对他的态度同她惯常的态度完全一样。(关系代词as与指示代词same连用, as 在从句中用作表语，其先行词是same) 4 ) You spent more money than was intended to be spent. 你花的钱超过了预定的数额
（ 关系代词than 在从句中用作主语，其先行词是money）
5) There are very few but admire his talents. 很少有人不赞赏他的才干的。 （ 关系代词but 在从句中用作主语，其先行词是few, but= who don’t）